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Tibial Osteotomy Abstract

This study determines the biomechanical advantage and the optimal configuration of a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and meniscus transplantation performed concurrently. Six cadaver knees were placed in a spatial frame, and an HTO was completed. Loading points between a mechanical 6 degrees of varus and 8 degrees of valgus were loaded to 800 N for medial meniscal intact, meniscectomized, and transplanted states. Posterior slope was also increased by 3 degrees in these specimens. Contact data was recorded. Peak pressures significantly increased in the meniscectomized state in every degree of varus/valgus (p < 0.05). For both peak and total medial compartment pressures, there was a significant drop (p < 0.001) between neutral and 3 degrees of valgus. Lateral compartment pressures linearly increased from varus to valgus orientation. There was no significant change in the pressure profile of the knee with a 3-degree increase in posterior slope. This biomechanical study confirms the hypothesis that an HTO improves the peak pressures in the medial compartment at all degrees of varus/valgus alignment in the setting of meniscal transplantation. Furthermore, the largest decrease in medial pressures was between neutral and 3 degrees of valgus, suggesting that perhaps neutral aligned knees could benefit from an HTO.

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